Brown is a mixed color with a mixture of several (two or more) saturated colors. The color spectrum does not include pink, white, gray and black. Because wood is used to make furniture, color has become one of the most popular in the interior. It is considered a symbol of fertility in many countries. And tens of thousands of years ago, people used brown umber pigments to create cave paintings. In ancient times, the sepia color was made from squid ink. Later it was used during the Renaissance by artists such as Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci. Brown was widely used by painters of the XVII-XVIII centuries. At that time, they already knew how to make the perfect brown. In the era of modernism, variegated and golden colors were replaced by their shades, which became attributes of new trends in design and architecture.
Features of color and shade
Essentially, brown is formed by solidifying a liquid with a yellowish tint. Because of this, it is sometimes referred to as dark yellow. Similarities with different colors (e.g. blue, chestnut, coffee). This is because there is a large number of pigments in the composition. In fashion, brown has always gained a reputation as “adult and monochromatic”, contrasting with bright and rich shades. This color scheme also includes many shades. They got their name due to the prevalence of brown in character and life. Among them are wheat, brown, rusty, copper, dark beige, brown, chocolate, khaki, sepia and withered leaf colors. Some shades have an unusual low tide. Dark reddish brown is also considered a shade of brown, although it is not usually mixed, but does not generally apply to burgundy, which is directly close to the red color.
Advantages and disadvantages of magnetic mixing
If you are not sure about the quality of your own mix, it is better to buy a ready-made brown paint. In particular, using acrylic paint can cause problems when painting on clothes or canvas. It will look different. Some components and properties of the raw materials of a particular manufacturer influence this. If you need to paint a lot of walls, you have two options, ready to buy or order ready-made paint. It is impossible to make two mixtures of absolutely the same shade. Special equipment is required. In simpler situations, you shouldn’t experiment. Your idea of shading can be fully implemented. There will be some negative points in this process. There may be a “slip” because the total volume of the paint is calculated in the first place. Also, hue requires a lot of power. The problem is saturated tone synthesis. Well, the main drawback can be considered a high propensity to fading, which is typical for such solutions.
However, there are many benefits.
- A variety of colors for cooking;
- Creation and adjustment of distinctive shades;
- Mixing next to the job site.
Tone mixing rules
There are several systems and models that define the interaction and similarity of colors. The science of various aspects related to the compatibility of shades and their use in art is called color painting. One of them is the color wheel with intermediate colors. For the synthesis of different colors, I used three basic colors: red, yellow and blue. A special role is also assigned colorless-black and white. Blending rules are created around these features. White watercolor, acrylic, gouache, oil, water-based and architectural paints are needed for the white palette, so the shade will look sharp. Instead, you can use white porcelain plates, or sometimes plastic tools, white cardboard or thick paper. Four basic rules of color mixing are derived.
- There are achromatic (white, gray, black) and colored (all other colors). In the second category, saturation, depth, brightness, brightness and hue are different.
- You can mix mechanically (by mixing) and optically (by striking each other).
- When you merge the two main tones, a color wheel appears halfway between them.
- When mixing 2 opposite colors on a circle, we get a composite that does not resemble them.
The primary color of brown
Brown is obtained by mixing several pigments. Experienced professionals can ideally calculate the desired proportions of three primary colors. But in practice, it is more convenient to interfere gradually with two colors. The classic combination for the synthesis of brown shades is a combination of red and green, orange and blue, purple and yellow. In each case, one paint is used as the basis, and the other gradually forms the desired classic shade of brown. So, you need to add red to green, orange to orange, and yellow to purple. The added pigment should generally be much less. Different proportions of the merger give different, different shades of brown and different synthetic colors. Brown can also be obtained by mixing small amounts of all the colors of the rainbow.
It’s important! You can enhance the color with special dyes.
Red and green
This is one of the combinations for creating dirty tones. If you don’t have green on your hands, you need to mix blue and yellow to the desired hue, using a triple of primary colors. This combination allows you to choose from several different shades. This will add the option to mix red and green to get the final result. What to add is decided individually. However, it is correct to fill the container with red paint with green paint until the hue and brightness are correct. Regardless of the final proportion, the resulting shade will be warm. It is worth trying the material. Choose a dirty shade (for example, camouflage or light green, light green) in red. In general, the darker the red and green, the better.
Blue and orange
In this case, if necessary, three main tones are used. If you need to make the orange independently, then red and yellow are mixed. Then the first should be 9/10 and the second should be 1/10. These proportions vary, but they require dark shades. The color of the solution can be made “medium” between orange and red. Blue is added to this mixture or the finished orange paint. The required volume is selected individually, but ranges from 5 to 10 units. It depends on the desired indicator of the orange component, brightness and initial appearance of the two components versus 90-95. Using the blue composition in the recommended amount, you can adjust the brightness of the mixture or add cyanosis. When the film dries, the final color appears. Either way, it comes out brighter than the original version. Doing a preliminary test on some surfaces doesn’t hurt.
Yellow and purple
Another way to get brown is to mix purple and yellow. In the absence of a second, a mixture of blue and red is made. Since violet turns more blue, we need more blue paint to create a true color. The purple and red of the spectral circle are adjacent, but at opposite ends of the visible spectrum. In the same proportions or overweight in the direction of red you become purple. It is also suitable for mixing with yellow. The latter is used in other ways to add to dark pigments. Yellow should be added gradually so as not to mix too lightly. The composition should be constantly mixed. Otherwise, you may miss moments when you no longer need yellow. Next, you need to do a shade test on a hard surface. Then it is determined based on the color of the surface layer.
The resulting paint is suitable for use on mineral and metal surfaces.
How to get a brown shade
For warm shades, add yellow or red to the brown paint. Do not pour out large portions immediately, you need to touch it gradually. In light and warm shades of brown, you can paint elements such as specular, earth, brick and wooden surfaces. If the hue is too warm, you can restore the balance with blue paint. To create a dark and soothing shade, you need to add only a blue tint at first. The color can be varied with white and colored paints. For dark brown, you need a black pigment. Do not add more than a few percent of the total amount of the mixture. Excess black is very difficult to compensate for except that it increases the mass of the brown several times. This is not always acceptable. The mixture will deteriorate if you add a large amount of white or water to remove the black color.
We recommend that you do the following:
- Compare results with different primary and secondary color ratios.
- Experiment with shades and note the color proportions of your favorite mixture.
You can also create shades of brown of varying brightness for subsequent blending. Often a soft and pleasant color is obtained.
Getting a reddish-brown shade
This color is also called terracotta. It is obtained by slightly mixing red and yellow inks. You need to add a small amount of blue and 0.1% white to get the final result. So, you need 3 basic colors and white. There are general guidelines for the proportions of tones. Red and yellow are taken almost the same. Blue is less than 4 times. But in practice you can reduce the proportion of the latter. In theory, it is possible to have an orange color, but when you mix the first two, in principle, it will be pure orange and amber, rather than a pinkish hue. You can mix many saturated colors with light shades to get the color you want, and among the entire palette, the highlight should shift to the red area of the spectral circle.
How to make a dark brown
One of the most popular shades, dark brown, is produced in several ways. The first is to mix the three primary colors red, blue and yellow in equal proportions. The paint should not be too dark. Then add black to the saturation you want. The second way is to add a small amount of black or blue paint to a dark brown shade. The color deepens. The third method is based on the use of the three main colors of the visible spectrum: red, green and blue. To do this, I use two dark shades of green and blue and blend them in the same part (i.e. 1:1:1:1). Add red and black in equal proportions to the resulting mixture. We do this until we reach the right tone.
The nuances of blending:
- If red, blue and yellow inks are used, the latter should be added to the first two mixtures.
- Yellow can get rid of excess shades.
- For dark brown paint, you can use bright red or green shades.
We mix the paint in a gray-brown shade.
There are many action options in this situation. One of them is to manipulate the standard brown color. In this case, you need to use additional white and black tones. Take the first white paint and light the brown solution. Next, add a little black, carefully stir the mixture and see what happened. Gray-brown should be gray and bright enough to shoot from a distance. White paint adds more than black. Another method for the synthesis of grayish brown is to add the gray component to the orange solution. The brightness is adjusted to black and white. Another way to use an orange base is to mix blue and black components. You can mix orange on one side and purple or a little black on the other to get a distinct dull hue.
What colors to mix for light brown?
To prepare the base, it must be suitable for all combinations of the above. For example, you can use the classic combination of red, yellow and blue colors. At the same time, they use more yellow pigments, and the rest are chosen bright colors. The resulting solution is brightened with white paint. To what extent change the initial shade-a matter of personal preference. If necessary, it can be red, blue or purple, or cocoa. This mixture is lighter than necessary and is rarely the case, but adding black paint can easily fix the problem. In any case, the ingredients should be gradually mixed in small portions. If the paint is intended for painting, it is better to use a special tool from a palette knife, not a brush, when mixing. Then you can avoid divorce.
Color mixing table and proportions for brown
The most popular shades (shown as one common option for each):
|hue||Color to mix||ratio|
|bright brown||green||Red||White||100:5:5, 100:10:5|
|chocolate||Dark green (herbal)||Orange||Red||100:50:40|
Thanks to this table, it is possible to calculate the proportions without any mistakes. In general, the three primary colors are enough to synthesize orange/violet/green when mixing the shades you want, or mixing them with red, blue or yellow. In some cases, black or white paint is essential. The most important thing is the brightness of the original tone. If choosing an ingredient fails, the color won’t always succeed. It is most difficult to “remove” this color, so you need to add the black part to the smallest part. With the right skill, you can independently select components and get the same classic or special rare shades. The brown base for subsequent adjustments is synthesized with a combination of yellow, cyan and pink/magenta colors, which are not in secondary colors or in the spectrum.
Brown is one of those things that can be printed independently. The composition of those shades allows for different color combinations and proportions. There are dozens of original versions in the shade range. If one of them is chosen for coloring, you need to decide on the composite material. The exact proportions are calculated for some color combinations, which greatly simplifies the task. However, small errors in the coloring process do not affect the final result. Brown can be made in several ways, merging orange and blue, red and green, purple and yellow, and using 2, 3, 4 or more colors. The brightness is adjusted to black and white. Self-mixing is very convenient for painting and other tasks in small areas. In other cases, it is better to get ready-made colors.